Monday, August 31, 2009

Chautauqua Institution Spotlights Compassion

by Amy Novogratz
August 17, 2009 02:26 PM

When Karen Armstrong won one of the three 2008 TED Prizes, we knew her wish -- to create a worldwide Charter for Compassion -- was a powerful one with the potential to develop into an innovative and international movement. As the final document is being crafted, we are starting to see the word spread about its message of compassion, universal justice and respect.

Since Monday, the Chautauqua Institution, a not-for-profit, educational center in southwest New York, has offered five days of afternoon discussions centered on Armstrong's wish to establish the Charter. Rev. Joan Brown Campbell, Director of the Institution's Department of Religions, and a member of the core Charter for Compassion team, put together the sessions, based on the theme, "Imagine a World of Peace through Compassion." The discussions culminated Friday when Armstrong was the featured afternoon speaker.

And as part of the week's events, TED worked with the Department of Religion on a special, one-hour program for the Charter for Compassion. Rev. James Alexander Forbes, Jr., Robert Thurman and Sri Swami Dayananda Saraswati each gave an 18-minute talk Wednesday afternoon for the audience. The talks were filmed and will be edited, translated and distributed by TED and the Charter for Compassion team. They will then be released on the Charter for Compassion website, and as part of the TED Partner Series.

All three speakers are powerful voices for peace through compassion. Dr. Forbes, Senior Minister Emeritus of Riverside Church, New York City, is co-chair of A Partnership of Faith, an interfaith organization of clergy among New York's Protestant, Catholic, Jewish and Muslim communities. Robert Thurman holds the Jey Tsong Khapa Chair in Indo-Tibetan Buddhist Studies at Columbia University. He has studied Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism for almost 30 years as a personal student of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Sri Swami Dayananda Saraswati, acclaimed throughout the world as a spiritual leader and Vedantic teacher, convened in 2001 the first World Congress for the Preservation of Religious Diversity in Delhi, inaugurated by the Dalai Lama.

The Chautauqua Institution was founded in 1874 as a training camp for Sunday school teachers. Today it is a summer center that encompasses the arts, education, religion and recreation, where some 7,500 people are in residence on any day during its nine-week season. The Institution's Abrahamic Program endeavors to teach about and build relationships among the Family of Abraham: Jews, Christians and Muslims.

Karen Armstrong has been honored around the world especially as an intercessor among the Abrahamic faiths. We've watched as her TED Prize wish to establish a document that would bring attention back to Abrahamic principles of universal justice and respect has expanded into a multi-faith, multi-national movement.

We've posted here the many ways people can help to promote the Charter and Armstrong's amazing work, including expanding contacts with the spiritual leaders who have inspired our readers' thinking the most. We hope that thousands of leaders from all religions, will agree to the Charter for Compassion, add their signatures and address their congregations on compassion during the week following the Charter launch on November 12.

The afternoon lecture series at the Chautauqua Institution was a great way to introduce the Chautauqua community to TED. And it's a terrific example of how, through the TED Prize, Karen Armstrong's wish is reaching new audiences and inspiring important, positive action on expanding justice and respect for all the world's communities. Look for the official launch of the Charter for Compassion this November.

Sunday, August 30, 2009

Sleep center accredited at WCA Hospital


JAMESTOWN—The WCA Hospital Sleep Center in Jamestown has been accredited in sleep medicine, hospital officials announced Friday.

A recent survey by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine led to the five-year accreditation, signifying the center meets or exceeds standards for professional health care as established by the academy. It is the only accredited sleep center in Jamestown.

“The center is a significant resource to the local medical community and will provide academic and scientific value in addition to the highest quality care for patients suffering from sleep disorders,” said Dr. Clete Kushida, academy president.

Saturday, August 29, 2009


by Ezra Klein, Washington Post

Ezra Klein, Washington Post - Groups such as or True Majority [are] all in favor of efforts to address poverty, but it's not the core item on the agenda, and that's because their constituencies fundamentally aren't poor. Because of that, they're a lot more aggressive on policies that appeal to their membership's political beliefs - the public option being a good example - than policies that directly help the poor. . .

Conversely, the groups that spend a lot of time on poverty - the Center for Budget and Policy Priorities, or Families USA - aren't member-driven. They're advocacy organizations, they tend to rely on foundation grants or endowments, and they tend to play a bit more of an inside Washington game, because they don't have funding sources or a membership structure that lends itself to grass-roots pressure. Foundations, after all, give a lot of money for research, but not that much money for attack ads. And people living just above the poverty line don't tend to send in $100 when you tell them subsidies in a bill are about to be cut, even though those subsidies will hurt them a lot more than the public option will help most of's members.

Put another way, the basic problem is that poor people, by virtue of being poor, can't donate a lot of money to popularize their concerns, and are fairly marginalized from the political process in general. The result isn't that those concerns are entirely ignored in Congress, as many of these institutions are very effective, and many legislators take this stuff very seriously. . .

The effects of this can be a bit weird: The health-care bill, for instance, spends pretty much all of its money on the poor, and its structure is primarily designed to increase coverage among low-income Americans. But pollsters have advised Democrats not to talk about that, and so they don't. Instead, they talk about how insurers are evil, or the public option is good, because those issues are more resonant both among the broader electorate and the liberal base.

Thursday, August 27, 2009

'Office' filming takes tourists by surprise

By Denise Jewell Gee
Updated: August 27, 2009, 11:54 PM / 0 comments

NIAGARA FALLS -- The Horseshoe Falls took a back seat Thursday morning when tourists on the Maid of the Mist discovered they had walked onto the set of the NBC comedy "The Office."

Actor John Krasinski and actress Jenna Fischer stood at the front of the famous boat attraction as they filmed a scene for an upcoming episode set in Niagara Falls, where their characters -- Pam Beesly and Jim Halpert -- finally tie the knot.

The cast and crew and about two dozen extras took two 30-minute rides through the swirling waters below the falls as they shot and reshot what could become a crucial scene in the show's fourth episode this season.

Above them, on the boat's second-floor deck, tourists who had come from as far as Australia and Japan to see the waterfalls got a bird's-eye view of the two television stars at work.

"We come up here one time, and we get on the Maid of the Mist and they're shooting a show," said Lynn Bryant, a milk delivery driver from Hampton, Va.

Like the time and location of Thursday's production, details of the wedding of Jim and Pam, the fictional Dunder Mifflin employees, have been kept a secret.

But Fischer did wear a white empire-waist wedding gown with beaded trim, and Krasinski wore a black tuxedo with a boutonniere of two white flowers during their Maid of the Mist ride.

The pair also wore blue Maid of the Mist slickers, but took them off as they neared the falls. Heavy mist soaked their clothes and left them dripping wet throughout several takes as the boat rocked in the water.

"None of us expected this whatsoever. The actors were completely drenched," said Randy Cordray, producer. "It was like standing in your backyard and having someone spray a hose right in your face, but John and Jenna played their scene beautifully, and the troupers that they are, they powered through it."

Cordray said staff from the show twice scouted the location by taking Maid of the Mist rides three weeks ago and again on Wednesday, but did not encounter the amount of water that sprayed over the actors Thursday morning.

"Once the actors got wet, there's nothing you can do about it," Cordray said. "So we just stayed wet, and we took another boat ride, and we went around again, and we played it wet for the second go-round."

Cordray also played a boat captain in the episode.

The shooting took place on regularly scheduled tours of the Maid of the Mist.

Filming the show aboard the boat was a challenge for the cast and crew, which typically shoots on a studio set in Los Angeles. That meant abandoning the high-definition cameras the crew typically uses and instead using a 16mm camera with a spinning device that keeps water droplets off the lens.

Fischer's hair and makeup also were factors under the falls.

"We had to think of waterproof mascara, anything that wasn't going to run, while still keeping them fresh-faced," said Laverne Caracuzzi-Milazzo, head makeup artist for "The Office." "Obviously due to this particular episode, we still needed to keep them looking good at all times."

The characters Pam and Jim, whose office romance has been a focal point on "The Office," were engaged last season and found out in the season finale that she was pregnant.

Cordray said the show's head writers, Greg Daniels and Paul Lieberstein, chose the American side of the falls for the wedding over its Canadian counterpart.

"It's the most romantic spot in America," Cordray said. "They wanted an iconic natural location for the wedding to take place in, and what a better spot?"

Fischer and Krasinski also shot a scene outside the Red Coach Inn -- renamed the Statler Falls Hotel for the episode -- in which Fischer carries her wedding dress into the hotel as Krasinski talks to the camera in the show's mockumentary style.

About 30 local residents served as extras in the filming. Some stood in rain ponchos on the Maid of the Mist, while others walked by the hotel in the background. "It's like [the movie] "Groundhog Day,' because we had to do the scene like eight or nine times," said Jackie Flynn, a Buffalo resident and teacher at Starpoint Middle School, who was an extra. "But it's one of my favorite shows."

Cordray said most of the episode was shot at inside locations in Los Angeles, including a restaurant and a chapel.

The episode is scheduled to air Oct. 8 as an hourlong special, said Tim Clark, Buffalo Niagara film commissioner.

A few clues to the episode's plot were visible to the public Thursday, but producers were mum on the details. Fischer wore white boots with her wedding gown, and Krasinski's black tie was cut in half. There was also a long kiss between the two on the boat.

"Our show unfolds to our viewers like magic, and you don't want to peel back the layers behind the curtain. So we're very secretive about the nature of our story lines," Cordray said. "All I can really say is that the wedding does happen in Niagara Falls, and Jim and Pam decide that they would really like to get closer to the waterfall, and so to do that, they take a ride on the Maid of the Mist."

The shooting -- which the crew tried to keep secret until Thursday by dubbing it the "Chandler project" -- drew a small crowd of in-the-know spectators who bought tickets for the Maid of the Mist ride.

Others arrived just to see the falls and got an extra treat.

"That's fantastic," said Australian resident Samantha Pesaturo, who visited the falls with her aunt and happened upon the set. "We had no idea. It's an added bonus."

Tuesday, August 25, 2009

Roger Tory Peterson, a Jamestown lad

Born: 28 August 1908
Birthplace: Jamestown, New York
Died: 28 July 1996
Best Known As: The author of Field Guide to Birds

Roger Tory Peterson was an artist and avid birder who revolutionized the world of bird-watching when he published his Field Guide to Birds in 1934. His detailed paintings and a simplified method of identifying birds helped to make birding a popular hobby. The guide was so successful that Peterson's system was applied to all manner of flora and fauna. Beginning with his 1934 Field Guide to the Birds, Roger Tory Peterson introduced literally millions of people to the pleasures of observing birds in the wild. His field guide, which has gone through five editions and sold more than four million copies, fostered an appreciation for the natural world that set the stage for the contemporary environmental movement. When Rachel Carson's Silent Spring sounded a warning about the threat to birds and their habitats in the 1960s, the Peterson field guides had already prepared the public and the scientific community to heed the warning and fight to save habitat and protect endangered species--a result that Peterson wholeheartedly approved.

Peterson was the son of Swedish immigrant Charles Gustav Peterson and German immigrant Henrietta Bader. The influx of Swedes into Jamestown during the Industrial Revolution upset the status quo of a city comprised primarily of descendants from the landed English gentry. At the time, Jamestown was a city of worsted woolen mills; industrious Swedish craftsmen soon changed it into a city of furniture factories.

Peterson's father Charles came to Jamestown in 1873 at the age of two. The family’s downward economic slide started just months later when his father died. Charles was forced to work in the woolen mills by the age of ten to support the family. With only a third grade education, Charles became the breadwinner. Later, his expectation of his son Roger was to get a high school education and then go to work in one of the city's many machine shops or furniture factories. He was hard on Roger and found it difficult to understand the boy’s curiosity about nature that occupied all of his time. As a youngster, Roger resented his father. It was not until he grew older that Roger fully appreciated "the odds that this man struggled against.”

Peterson’s mother, Henrietta (Nettie) Bader was brought to America when she was four years old. A religious woman, she attended Holy Trinity Lutheran Church with her children Roger and Margaret. When the new minister came to visit, Nettie remarked on how much Roger enjoyed birds and natural history. The minister said "Well, that makes for unbelievers." Roger seriously questioned the church from then on. He grew up at 16 Bowen Street with his parents and sister. His paternal grandmother, an aunt, and six cousins also shared the Peterson’s quarters. Some say that this was the reason Roger was forever outside exploring the countryside.

Peterson was born in Jamestown, New York. After graduating from high school‚ Peterson moved to New York City‚ where he attended the Art Students League (1927-1928) and the National Academy of Design (1929-1931). He then taught science and art at the Rivers School in Brookline, Massachusetts. In 1934 he published his seminal Guide to the Birds, the first modern field guide, which sold out its first printing of 2‚000 copies in one week, and subsequently went through 5 editions. He co-wrote Wild America with James Fisher, and edited or wrote many of the volumes in the Peterson Field Guide series on topics ranging from rocks and minerals to beetles to reptiles. He developed the Peterson Identification System, and is known for the clarity of both his illustrations of field guides and his delineation of relevant field marks.

Paul R. Ehrlich, in The Birder's Handbook, said this about Peterson:

In this century, no one has done more to promote an interest in living creatures than Roger Tory Peterson, the inventor of the modern field guide.

Peterson received every major American award for natural science, ornithology, and conservation, as well as numerous honorary medals, diplomas, and citations from America and elewhere, including the United States Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Order of the Golden Ark of the Netherlands. He died in 1996 at his home in Old Lyme, Connecticut. The Roger Tory Peterson Institute of Natural History in Jamestown, New York is named in his honor.

"The philosophy that I have worked under most of my life is that the serious study of natural history is an activity which has far-reaching effects in every aspect of a person's life. It ultimately makes people protective of the environment in a very committed way. It is my opinion that the study of natural history should be the primary avenue for creating environmentalists…" – Roger Tory Peterson.

Painting by Roger Tory Peterson of Snowy Owls

I was lucky enough to meet Roger Tory Peterson twice. Once when he gave a lecture in Chautauqua when I was still in high school about 1975 I think, and once in the 80s I think it was at the Jamestown Audubon Center and I gave him a pack of my note cards and he kindly thanked me. I grew up on his books as both my Mother and Father loved to use his Field Guide to Eastern Birds to identify species. My Mother still enjoys using it.

10,000 Maniacs a Jamestown Band

10,000 Maniacs is a United States-based alternative rock band, formed in 1981


The band was formed as Still Life in 1981 in Jamestown, New York, by Dennis Drew (keyboards), Steve Gustafson (bass), Chet Cardinale (drums), Robert Buck (guitar), and Terry Newhouse (Buck's ex-wife and vocalist). Steve Gustafson invited Natalie Merchant, who was 17 at the time, to do some vocals. John Lombardo who was in a band called The Mills (along with brother guitarist/vocalists Mark Liuzzo and Paul Liuzzo and drummer Mike Young) and used to play occasionally with Still Life, was invited to join permanently on guitar and vocals. Newhouse and Cardinale left the band in July, and Natalie Merchant became the main singer. Various drummers came and left. The band changed its name to Burn Victims and then to 10,000 Maniacs after the low-budget horror movie Two Thousand Maniacs!.

They performed as 10,000 Maniacs for the first time on September 7, 1981 - Labor Day, with a line-up of Natalie Merchant, John Lombardo, Robert Buck, Dennis Drew, Steve Gustafson, and Tim Edborg on drums. Tim Edborg left and Bob "Bob O Matic" Wachter was on drums for most of the 1981 gigs. Tired of playing cover songs - though oddly enough their first notable American hit was found in covering Cat Stevens hit "Peace Train" - the band started to write their own music, usually with Natalie Merchant handling the lyrics and John Lombardo the music. In February-March 1982, with Jim Foti on drums, the band recorded an EP album called Human Conflict Number Five. More gigs followed in 1982. It was during this time that they lived in Atlanta, Georgia for a short while at the encouragement of friends who said that many gigs were available there. The band moved back to Jamestown in November 1982.

At the beginning of 1983, Jerry Augustyniak joined the band as their permanent drummer. The Maniacs met Augustyniak when they played in Buffalo, New York, where he was in a punk band called The Stains. Between March and July, the band recorded songs for a second record, Secrets of the I Ching - their debut full-length album, which was pressed by Mark Records for the band's own label Christian Burial Music. The record was well-received by critics and it caught the attention of John Peel - DJ at Radio BBC Radio 1 in London. One song, "My Mother the War" turned out to be a minor hit in United Kingdom, and it entered the independent singles chart. During 1983 and 1984, touring was a way of life for the band, which included gigs in the UK.

Peter Leak, an Englishman living in New York City, became interested in the band, made contact and was made their manager. With the help of Leak and Elektra Records A & R man Howard Thompson, 10,000 Maniacs signed to Elektra in November 1984. In the spring of 1985, they recorded their second full-length album, The Wishing Chair, in London at Livingston Studios, with Joe Boyd as producer. Though the album was not a blockbuster hit, its status the band's major label debut did win it some notice, and it received significant critical acclaim.

Co-founder John Lombardo left the band during a rehearsal on Monday, July 14, 1986. The remaining five members started the recordings of a new album in Los Angeles, with Peter Asher as the producer. In My Tribe, a more pop-rock oriented record, was released on Tuesday, July 7, 1987, hit the charts where it stayed 77 weeks, peaking at #37 and established a large US audience for the group and was also well received in the UK. The next album, 1989 Blind Man's Zoo hit #13 and went Gold further increased the group's following. In 1990, with the help of John Lombardo, they remastered their first two records Human Conflict Number Five and Secrets of the I Ching and released them as a compilation called Hope Chest: The Fredonia Recordings 1982-1983. John Lombardo and Mary Ramsey, who had formed a folk act called John & Mary, opened gigs for the Maniacs on the Hope Chest Tour in 1990. In 1991, during the recordings of a new album, Natalie Merchant revealed to the other members that she would be leaving for a solo career in two years' time. In 1992, Our Time in Eden was released. On Wednesday, April 21, 1993, 10,000 Maniacs recorded MTV Unplugged and Natalie Merchant announced her leaving the band on MTV on Thursday, August 5, 1993. The MTV Unplugged (10,000 Maniacs album) album was released in October 1993. The band also played President Clinton's Inaugural Ball in January 1993, with Merchant a vociferous supporter of the Democratic Party

I was friends with Terry Newhouse in High School at Chautauqua Central and we had allot of fun in Creative Writing class. I recall those years when I was newly married and the Maniacs played at "Smokes" in Mayville on summer nights.

Chautauqua County Exports are solid Gold

Natalie Anne Merchant (born October 26, 1963 in Jamestown, New York, USA) is a professional musician. She joined the alternative rock band 10,000 Maniacs in 1981 and left it to begin her solo career in 1993. Merchant has a contralto vocal range.

The History of Chautauqua County's largest City

The first white man to seriously consider the place now Jamestown as a possible site for settlement was James Prendergast, and it is from him that the city takes its name. The members of the Prendergast family were prominent in the early history of the county, and had in 1806 bought 3,500 acres of land in the vicinity of Mayville, and were rapidly clearing away the forest. James Prendergast, the youngest of the family of eleven children, was sent out to find a team of horses which had strayed away, and before catching up with them at what is now Rutledge, Cattaraugus county, had traversed the great pine tree region of the Conewango Valley, Kiantone, one of the granaries of the Six Nations, and a great deal of the then unbroken wilderness now Southern Chautauqua county.

To such a man as James Prendergast proved to be, his view of the magnificent pine forests must have impressed him with a conception of their great future value, as with rare judgment he chose the site for mills, home and future city. Two years after his discovery of the Outlet and rapids, he made his first purchase of land, his brother, under the instructions of James Prendergast, purchasing 1,000 acres, the present boat landing being about the centre of that tract, two dollars per acre the purchase price.

In the early fall of 1809, James Prendergast visited his purchase with a trusted employe, John Blowers, to whom he confided his plans for founding a settlement and engaging in the manufacture of lumber by utilizing the water power of the outlet. Blowers evidently thought well of the plan, for in 1810 he erected a small log cabin on the banks of the outlet, an event of historic importance, for it was the first building erected on the site of Jamestown. Later, a story and a half log house was built on the banks of the outlet for the use of James Prendergast and family. Then followed a dam for water power, a saw mill, a grist mill, and so Jamestown's foundations were laid.

But the "kicker" arrived soon afterward, and it is astounding to learn that in 1812 James Prendergast was indicted by the grand jury for erecting this dam "to the great injury and common nuisance of the liege citizens of the State." He was found guilty, and fined fifteen dollars and substantial costs. He removed the dam, rebuilding on a new site where it was evidently not considered a "common nuisance." In December, 1812, Captain William Forbes came, moving into the second log house built by James Prendergast, the location of that house on now Cherry street, between First and Second streets. The first frame house was built by John Blowers, who built the first log house. This building was finished in 1813, and was also the first tavern in the town and known as the Blowers House, in honor of its first proprietor. The house was sold in 1814 to Dr. Laban Hazeltine, and occupied by him as a residence for nearly forty years. No trace now remains. Fire destroyed the Prendergast early mills, but they were quickly rebuilt. The second war with Great Britain also interferred with the growth of the settlement, and a second time the Prendergast buildings were destroyed by fire, but James Prendergast clung to his belief in the value of the location, never lost his courage, and finally settlers began to arrive, the outlet was bridged and other improvements followed.

In the spring of 1815 the first operations in real estate began. A number of lots fifty by one hundred twenty feet were surveyed and placed on the market at $50 each, and we are told that $50 was the ruling price for a lot for a period of about ten years, beginning with 1815. Under existing conditions this was enough, for there was little, about the location in and of itself to attract any but the adventurous pioneer. Indeed, Jamestown in 1815 was little more than a crude lumber camp, as will be readily seen from the perusal of a sketch written by Judge Foote, who describes the village as follows:

A one and one-half story gristmill building, with two runs of stones, two single sawmills and one gang sawmill, all owned by James Prendergast. There was one small store of goods owned by Jediah and Martin Prendergast, of Mayville, managed by Thomas Disher, a clerk. Two small shanty blacksmith shops were occupied by Eleazer Daniels and Patrick Campbell, and a small out of doors tannery owned by John Burge and James Rice. The chief business was cutting lum-ber. In November, 1815, there were thirteen families living on Jamestown territory, occupying rude cabins, and some men without families. A few families lived in adjacent territory; one in the extreme northwestern corner of the city limits, and two or three at Cass Mills (East Jamestown).

Among the early settlers whose names must always be included in any list of the "founders of Jamestown" are these: Abner Hazeltine, Daniel Hazeltine, Samuel Barrett, Samuel A. Brown, Thos. W. Harvey, Royal Keyes, Rufus Pier, Wm. Hall, Silas Tiffany, Doctor Foote, Horace Allen, Col. Augustus F. Allen, Dascum Allen, Col. Henry Baker, Adolphus Fletcher, Solomon and Ellick Jones, Chas. R. Harvey, Silas Shearman, Geo. W. Tew, Wm. H. Tew, Woodley W. Chandler, and John W. Winsor.

The settlement was locally known as "Prendergast Mills" and "The Rapids," but in 1815 the name "Jamestown" was adopted, and a year or so later a post office was established and Jamestown was a fixture on the maps of the county.

By 1827 the number of settlers had increased to such an extent that the desirability of a village government was manifest, and an act of incorporation passed by the Legislature became a law March 6, 1827. The first village election was held at the home of Solomon Jones and these officers were elected: Trustees, Thomas W. Harvey, Jediah E. Budlong, Daniel Hazeltine, Jr., Samuel Barrett, Alvin Plumb; treasurer, Samuel A. Brown; clerk, George W. Tew; collector, R. F. Fenton. After the election, B. T. Foote, Horace Allen, S. A. Brown, Abner Hazeltine and Joseph Waite were appointed to draft a constitution and by-laws, and when their work was completed Jamestown was ready to assume the duties and responsibilities of a village.

The act incorporating the village of Jamestown was drawn with great care. In terse language, the act defined the rights and prescribed the duties of the inhabitants and officials, and all in all was a very satisfactory scheme of government, as may be inferred from the fact that the principles that were then laid down were in a large degree adhered to in the amendments made from time to time to meet the demands of a growing village.

To adequately protect the village from the ravages of fire was one of the first duties of the newly formed village government, and to provide fire protection a meeting was held July 5, 1827. At that meeting it was decided to raise $300 by tax. Eventually it was raised, and August 31, 1829, the first fire company was organized-Fire Company No. 1. This company had a little hand pump which was hauled to the nearest reservoir at the outbreak of a fire, and with a dozen muscular young men on the brakes did more or less effective work. The first officers of this company were: Ellick Jones, captain; William H. Tew, captain's mate; Phineas Palmeter, Jr., engineer; James H. Culver, assistant engineer. All these officers were prominent citizens. Ellick Jones, the captain, was the father of Orsino E. Jones. It is evident from a perusal of the early village records that the purchase of equipment for the department, the management of the same and the selection of officers, cut quite a figure in the politics of the village, and the minutes of a meeting held May 13, 1844, show that the main topic for consideration was a fire department controversy.

The first system of fire protection consisted of a series of small storage reservoirs located in various sections of the village. Crude hand engines supplied water pressure for hose, and thus the villagers were able to cope with an ordinary blaze. With the growth of the village came the demand for additional reservoirs and engines and to meet this demand hose companies and engine companies were organized from time to time. The first engine company, Engine Company No. 1, was later known as Deluge Engine Company, and claims the distinction of being the oldest in the volunteer department. This claim was sharply disputed by the Ellicott Hook and Ladder Company, and there are no records available which decisively settle this dispute, although an impartial investigation which was conducted in August, 1892, resulted in a decision that the Deluge Company was entitled to claim the seniority.

The order in which the present companies of the department were organized is as follows: Deluge Engine Company, Ellicott Hook and Ladder Company, Rescue Hose Company, Eagle Hose Company, Prendergast Hose Company, Jeffords Hose Company, Fire Police, Martyn Hose Company.

The village grew so rapidly that in a few years it was found impracticable to adequately protect the buildings with the reservoir scheme, and a private company constructed a simple system of water works with mains running through the business section of Main street. Pressure was supplied by a large steam pump and thus the business section of the village was fairly well protected, residents of the outlying portions of the village still relying on the reservoirs and hand engines.

In 1886, a general system of water works was projected. This system covered the entire town, and with powerful steam pumps provided ample pressure for all localities. Then the old hand engines were laid away forever, and the volunteer firemen assumed the task of protecting the property of the village under more favorable auspices. In turn, the volunteer department gave way to the modern paid department with motor equipment on engines, hose carts and hook and ladder trucks. There are six fire stations with the most modern fire alarm system, having boxes all over the city. Fire headquarters are at No. 1 Spring street, Howard S. Rodgers, chief (July, 1920.)

The documents prepared by the Chautauqua County Bank in 1831, in which they applied for a charter from the Legislature, set forth these reasons why a charter should be granted:

In 1816 there was no post office within twenty miles of Jamestown, where it is proposed to locate this bank.

The City of Jamestown.

Population of Jamestown, January, 1827, 393.
Population of Jamestown, June, 1930, 884.

It has now eleven stores, one woolen factory, one sash factory, one gristmill with three fun of stones. one gang sawmill, three common sawmills, two printing offices, and a great number of mechanic establishments. A steamboat of eighty tons burden plies daily between Jamestown and Mayville on the Chautauqua Lake. One of the Lake Erie steamboats is solely employed in doing the business of Chautauqua county.

Jamestown is ninety miles on the route usually traveled, from the nearest banking institution in this State (United States Branch Bank at Buffalo). The bank at Lockport is the nearest State institution. There is no bank in the southern tier of counties from Orange to Lake Erie.

The lumber included in this estimate is produced in a territory about the size of Chautauqua which is partly in this county, partly in the county of Cattaraugus, and partly in the State of Pennsylvania, and of which Jamestown is the commercial center.

The county of Chautauqua ranks among the first in the State for size, commercial advantages, and fertility of soil. It has no large swamps nor barren mountains, and is probably capable of supporting as numerous and dense a population as any in the State.

The charter for this bank was granted April 18, 1831. The institution was organized under the safety fund act, with a capital of $100,000, and the privilege of issuing bills to twice the amount of the capital. The first directors were Leverett Barker, John G. Saxton, William Peacock, James Hall, Samuel Barrett, Jediah E. Budlong, Oliver Lee, Thomas Campbell, Daniel Shearman, Elial T. Foote, Alvin Plumb, Abner Hazeltine, Richard P. Marvin. The first officers were Elial T. Foote, president, with an allowance of one cent for each bill signed by him, and Arad Joy, cashier, with an annual salary of $550.

The prudent, conservative policies adopted by the founders of this bank have always been strictly adhered to not only by their successors but also by the officials of the other excellent banking institutions which in the course of time followed, and it is a pleasure to record the fact that there has never been a bank failure in Jamestown, and that all the banks have at all times maintained the most harmonious relations with each other. The present banks of the city (1920) are the Chautauqua County National Bank; First National Bank; American National Bank; Bank of Jamestown; Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank; Liberty National Bank; Union Trust Company.

James Prendergast, with his rare foresight, early realized the temporary character of the lumber manufacturing business, and did everything possible to induce manufacturers in other lines to settle in Jamestown. This policy has always been adhered to, and new industries have been liberally dealt with, the result that Jamestown is a manufacturing city, its growth due to the development of industrial enterprise.

The first manufacturing industry of which there is any record was a small cabinet-making shop started by Royal Keyes about 1815. The same year the Chautauqua Manufacturing Company was organized for the manufacture of cloth, and each year has seen the number increase until to-day (July 6, 1920) Jamestown manufactures in city and suburbs, wood and metal furniture, voting machines, washing machines, pianos, paving brick, wrenches, woolen dress goods, suitings, towels, window screens, blinds, tools, rubbing, carving and sanding machines, mirrors, automobile running gears complete, veneer, and bee hives. The census (State) of 1915 gives the names of 96 principal manufacturing firms and states that there are 73 smaller factories-in all employing 6,616 men, 1,785 women, 141 children and 561 office workers. The largest employing concern was the Art Metal Construction Company, with two plants and 1,130 hands; the William Brodhead Mills second, with 809; and the Salisbury Wheel and Manufacturing Company, 335.

The furniture factories employ by far the greater number of hands, 70 factories and about 5,000 people being engaged in that line of manufacture, the city ranking second in the manufacture of wood furniture. Twice a year a furniture market is held, hundreds of buyers coming to the city to select and place orders. A nine-story furniture exposition building has been erected, in which the goods are displayed and large additions are now planned. The worsted and woolen of Jamestown and Falconer are known through their products all over the land and have added greatly to the wealth of the city. At this writing, five years after the State census from which the foregoing figures are taken, there are 263 factories in and around Jamestown. representing a great variety of industries.

Jamestown has always possessed a high grade of retail and wholesale merchants, and its stores of all kinds are modern examples of merchandising. The seven financial institutions of the city have ably played their part in the development of manufacturing and merchandising and the diversified industries of the city have attracted a very desirable class of citizens, of whom a large percentage own their own homes.

The first railroad to reach the village of Jamestown was the Atlantic & Great Western, now a part of the Erie system, which ran its first train into the city August 23, 1860. Jamestown is now on the main line of the Erie between Chicago and New York, and is the southern terminal of the Buffalo & Southwestern branch of the Erie, and in close touch by street cars with the Dunkirk, Allegheny Valley & Pittsburgh railroad at Falconer, that road beginning at Dunkirk and terminating at Titusyule, Pennsylvania. Jamestown is connected with the New York Central system by the Jamestown, Westfield & Northwestern railway and the Chautauqua Traction Company, the lines of these roads extending from Jamestown to Westfield on both sides of Chautauqua Lake. At Mayville, connection is made with the Pennsylvania system. The Jamestown Street Railway serves the cities, Celoron and Falconer. The Warren & Jamestown Street Railway Company connects Jamestown with Warren, Pennsylvania, while excursion steamers make frequent trips around the lake touching at the various landings.

Jamestown took upon herself the dignity of a city, April 19, 1886, after nearly a year spent in the discussion of the details incident to the preparation of a city charter. The committee of ten appointed to draft a charter was: Robert N. Marvin, A. N. Broadhead, F. E. Gifford, Porter Sheldon, John T. Wilson, Orsino E. Jones, John J. Whitney, James I. Fowler, Jerome Preston and Oscar F. Price. The proposed charter, perfected to the satisfaction of all, was passed by the Legislature March 31, 1886, the act was signed by Governor David B. Hill, and Jamestown became a city. By the provisions of this charter the city was divided into five wards. The legislative branch was vested in a common council or board of aldermen, with two representatives from each ward. The executive authority was vested in the mayor. The first election was held April 13, 1886, and resulted as follows: Mayor, Oscar F. Price; city clerk, Fred R. Peterson; Aldermen, First Ward, Adam Ports, John G. Wicks; Second Ward, W. T. Bradshaw, T. E. Grandin: Third Ward, C. F. Hedman, J. S. Ellis; Fourth Ward, Conrad A. Hult, E. F. Carpenter; Fifth Ward, H. S. Hall, E. R. Bootey; police justice, Henry J. Yates; justices of the peace, Marshall P. Strunk, DeForest D. Woodford, Egburt E. Woodbury, Herbert U. Bain; assessors, James C. Swanson, John W. Johnson, John M. Farnham. There was no contest for the office of mayor. The total vote was 1,950, of which number Mr. Price received 1,780.

The change from a village to a city took place on the evening of April 19, 1886, on which occasion the old board of trustees met, canvassed the vote of the election and declared the result. In retiring, Major Hiram Smith, one of the trustees, took occasion to review briefly the past history of Jamestown and express his confidence in the ability and integrity of the newly elected officials.

In addition to the usual city officials, Jamestown has a board of estimate and review, a board of water and lighting commissioners, a board of hospital commissioners, a board of park and city planning commissioners, and a civil service commission.

Jamestown was one of the pioneer cities of New York in advocating municipal ownership of public utilities. Just what has been accomplished is best set forth in an address of welcome delivered by Mayor Samuel A. Carison to the New York State Conference of Mayors and Other City Officials in session in Jamestown the week of July 4, 1920:

It is fitting that you should meet here because Jamestown is one of the cities in which many successful experments in municipal democracy have been made.

We invite you to inspect our municipally owned water works which is self-sustaining and which, notwithstanding our high hills and high cost of labor and material has continued to supply our citizens with the purest water on earth at the low cost of one cent per barrel.

We invite you to examine our municipally owned lighting system by the means of which we are able to supply electric light at 4½c per K. W. And we call your attention to the fact that notwithstanding this low rate, the plant pays all expenses, all interest and principal on bonds and makes proper allowance for depreciation. The plant has never cost the taxpayers a dollar, except the $48.00 per year charge for each street light, and it has met the test and scrutiny of every antagonistic expert investigator.

We invite you to look over our municipally owned public market system and buitding which has paid for itself without any tax assistance and which is patronized by thousands of our people every week.

We invite you to inspect our municipally owned hospital which is maintained at a cost to the city of less than one cent per week per capita, and in which 15,000 persons have been treated since its establishment ten years ago. We hold that it is just as much the function of city government to rescue a citizen's life from the menace of disease as it is to rescue his property from the menace of fire.

We invite you to inspect our municipally owned sand and gravel pit and our municipally constructed pavements, by which we have eliminated the profiteering element usually imposed by contractors.

We invite you to visit our beautiful parks, our institutions of worship and social uplift, our Chadakoin Valley, filled with thriving industries, and our hillsides covered with homes owned by those who toil in these industries. Wherever you find home-owners you find no Bolsheviki.

We call your attention to the annual publication of our entire assessment roll, which enables our whole taxpaying citizenship to constitute itself into a board of review. Less than 1 per cent, of our total tax levy remains uncollected in any year.

We call your attention to our sanitary method of handling garbage by which each householder is required to wrap his garbage in paper bundles thereby minimizing the task of its collection and rendering it suitable for consumption by some 500 hogs, making an inexpensive substitute for a disposal plant.

Our milk supply is subject to a bacteriological test at a laboratory conducted by our Health Department.

And all our health regulations are such that Jamestown now enjoys, I believe, the lowest death rate of any city in this State. We put the emphasis on a low death rate rather than a low tax rate.

We call your attention to the fact that we have successfully put into practice the referendum method of determining important questions of public policy on which citizens are divided in opinion.

And all commissioners in charge of our public utilities are appointed without any reference whatsoever to partisan politics.

Had this speech been delivered about six weeks later, Mayor Carison could have referred to the municipal milk plant which was voted at a special election held in August, 1920.

These innovations did not come easily or quickly, but through the public-spirited leaders and the determination of the citizens. The municipal lighting plant was won after a long fight, and at a special election held September 26, 1890, three propositions were submitted to the voters of Jamestown- one to issue bonds for the construction of a sewer system, carried; another, to issue bonds for paving, lost; another, to issue bonds for the equipment of an electric light plant. Bonds were issued and sold at a premium, the contract for the construction and equipment of the plant was let, and on July 4, 1891, at 9 p. m., the machinery was started and electric lights flashed up in all parts of the city. During the evening a demonstration was arranged in honor of George M. Martyn, one of the leaders in the fight, and later a considerable sum was subscribed by his friends, and a bronze drinking fountain was erected at the corner of Main and Third streets.

The sewer system was begun at the corner of Sprague and West Second streets on the morning of April 11, 1893, and paving followed naturally. A determined effort was made in 1893 to secure the removal of the county seat from Mayville to Jamestown. but on submission of the question to the voters of the county the proposition was lost, there being 282 votes cast "against" in Jamestown, which had they been cast "for" would have brought the county seat to Jamestown. The city quietly acquiesced in the decision and at once began the erection of a City Hall, costing $85,000, the cornerstone being laid with Masonic ceremonies, September 28, 1895.

Public improvements followed fast, and finally an abundant and unfailing water supply became the great unsolved problem. The Jamestown Water Supply Company had surceeded to the earlier rights and franchises granted by village trustees and city aldermen, and had a plant which gave the city satisfactory pressure for fire protection, and there was no objection to the quality of the water or the service. But municipal water service was demanded and a committee was appointed to investigate the two plants which had been bought-the purchase of the plant of the Jamestown Water Supply Company and the erection of a new plant. The committee employed J. F. Witmer, a hydraulic engineer, who began his work January 21, 1901, reported in September, 1901, and negotiations were opened for the purchase of the plant of the water company. A proposition to purchase the plant for $600,000 was submitted to the voters, a bill was enacted creating a water commission, bonds of the city were sold, and on April 1, 1903, the city took possession of its own water supply system.

The source of supply is at Levant, three or four miles east of the city. Artesian wells tap an unfailing supply of pure and cold water. This supply has been constant even during the greatest drought and it is believed it will be ample to supply the city for all time to come.

Oscar F. Price was mayor of Jamestown from its incorporation as a city until 1894, when he retired, and Eleazer Green was elected by practically a unanimous vote. Mr. Green had for some years been one of the leading attorneys of the city and an active and aggressive Republican. In an appreciative and timely biographical sketch, the "Journal" said: "His nomination was a recognition of his fitness, progressive business spirit and sterling integrity, and his overwhelming election was further proof of the trust reposed in him. No man could enter upon his official career with greater evidence of esteem and confidence than does Mr. Green. He was selected with the expectation that the city would be conducted in a business manner, and that there should be a clean, creditable administration."

Mayor Green took the oath of office in the Common Council chamber May 7, 1894. On that occasion Mayor Price presented to Mayor Green the handsome silver tipped gavel which he had received so many years ago, and said he was glad to surrender this emblem of authority to a man of honor and ability. "Since coming to this council eleven years ago," said Mayor Price, "the city has more than doubled its population. This has been due to the enterprise of her citizens and to the wisdom of those who have shaped its destiny during the early days of its cityhood."

In the fall of 1895 Mr. Green was elected district attorney of Chautauqua county, assuming the duties of the office January 1, 1896. He therefore retired from office upon the expiration, and was succeeded as mayor by Oscar F. Price, his predecessor, who two years later was succeeded by Henry H. Cooper, who took the oath of office April 11, 1898. In the spring of 1900, Mayor Cooper was succeeded by J. Emil Johnson, during whose administration the municipal water plant was acquired.

In 1908 Samuel A. Carison was elected mayor of Jamestown and in 1920 he began his seventh term as chief executive of the city-.

The following table gives the population of Jamestown from 1827 down to the last census: 1827, 393; 1830, 884; 1840, 1,212; 1845, 1,642; 1855, 2,625; 1860, 3,155; 1870, 5,336; 1880, 9,357; 1890, 16,038; 1892, 18,627; 1900, 22,892; 1905, 26,160; 1910, 31,297; 1915, 37,780; 1920, 38,898, corrected, 38,917.

The schools of Jamestown are included in the educational chapter, Dr. Rovillus R. Rogers, editor. Jamestown is a city of churches, and perhaps no city in the State has in proportion to its population as large a religious element or as many imposing church edifices. Rev. Eliot C. Hall in 1900 prepared a brief sketch of Jamestown's church history, which is here quoted, as it contains all the essential facts concerning the various church denominations:

The early settlers were, for the most part, interested in religious matters, and favored the formation of churches. Many meetings, however, were held before any church was formed, and no minister of any denomination visited the place without being invited to preach.

The First Congregational Church was organized in 1816 by Rev. John Spencer, a missionary from Connecticut, and legally incorporated in 1821.

A Methodist class was formed at Worksburg in 1814, and a Congregational church in what is now Kiantone, in 1815. (Both Worksburg and Kiantone were then in the town of Ellicott, in which township Jamestown was also located.) A building formerly used for school purposes known as the Old Academy served as a place of worship until the year 1828, when a church building was erected on the southwest corner of Main and Fifth streets.

A commodious brick church edifice was erected in 1869 on East Third street, which has been enlarged and remodeled and is now used by this church.

Rev. Isaac Eddy was the first pastor of the church. The present First Methodist Episcopal Church grew out of the class formed at Worksburg in 1814. This class was duly organized into a church arid moved to Jamestown in 1823. Their first church edifice was erected at the junction of Second and Chandler streets, and completed in 1833. They now occupy a fine brick structure which has a seating capacity of about 1,500. This church has had a remarkably vigorous growth, and has the largest membership of any of the Englishspeaking churches of the city.

The First Baptist Church was organized in 1832. Their first church edifice was built in 1833. The present building, constructed of Warsaw blue stone, is one of the finest in the city. It is situated at the corner of Fourth and Church streets and is a monument to the zeal and devotion of both pastor and people.

The First Presbyterian Church was organized in 1834 by Rev. E. J. Gillett, forty-one members of the Congregational church having withdrawn to unite in its formation. In 1837 a substantial church edifice was built of wood, on the corner of West Third and Cherry streets. This building was burned in 1877, but was replaced by a large and commodious brick edifice, the interior of which was destroyed by fire in 1890. The building was immediately rebuilt with all modern conveniences and facilities for church work. The church has a large and growing membership, and has been ably served by its pastors.

St. Luke's Protestant Episcopal Church was organized in 1834, but was without a stated pastor until the year 1853, when Rev. Levi W. Norton took charge of this parish. The first church building of wood, erected on the corner of Main and Fourth streets, was consecrated in 1856. This building was burned in 1862 and replaced by a second building upon the same foundation in 1865. The present beautiful church edifice was the munificent gift of the late Mrs. Mary A. Prendergast, as a memorial to her daughter, Catherine. It is constructed of Medina sandstone, is fire-proof and complete in all its equipments. It has a clock tower which contains the only chime of bells in the city.

The Free Methodist Church was incorporated in 1874, the outgrowth of a class formed in 1871. The present church building was erected in 1884 on the corner of Lincoln and East Seventh streets.

SS. Peter and Paul Roman Catholic Church occupies a fine stone building on the corner of West Sixth and Cherry streets. For a number of years Jamestown was part of a large parish embracing several towns served by one church official. In 1874 a separate parish was formed here under the care of Rev. Father Richard Coyle, under whose wise administration the church greatly prospered.

The English Lutheran Church has a modest brick house of worship on West Fourth street. The church was organized by Rev. S. G. Weiskotten in 1877.

The First Unitarian Church was organized by Rev. J. G. Townsend as an Independent Congregational Church in 1885. Its church property at the junction of East Second and Chandler streets was purchased from the First Methodist Episcopal Church and completely remodeled and refurnished.

The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church was organized in 1882 as a Union Church, but subsequently placed itself under the care of the African Methodist Episcopal Conference. It has a new church building on its lot on Spring street.

The Seventh Day Adventists have a church building on Cherry street.

The First Church of Christ (Scientist) has a unique church building on the corner of East Fourth street and Prendergast avenue.

A Primitive Methodist Church has recently been organized, and a house of worship erected on Allen street.

The Brooklyn Heights Methodist Episcopal Church has a neat house of worship on the corner of Sprague and Palmer streets.

The Salvation Army holds services in both the English and Swedish languages. There are also six chapels where Sunday Schools and occasional preaching services are held.

There is also a Spiritualistic and a Theosophic Society which meet by appointment in different places.

Jamestown has a large Swedish population, and they are largely a church-going people. A Swedish Methodist Episcopal Church was formed here as early as 1852. This church now occupies a fine brick structure on the corner of Chandler street and Foote avenue.

The First Swedish Lutheran Church was organized in 1857. Rev. Carl Otto Hultgren, D. D., became pastor in 1864. A large and imposing Medina sand stone church building is located on Chandler street.

The Swedish Mission Church was organized in 1879 and has recently erected a fine brick building on Chandler street.

The Swedish Christian Zion Church was organized by members who withdrew from the Mission Church and have a fine brick house of worship on College street.

The Swedish Immanuel Lutheran Church was formed from members who withdrew from the First Lutheran Church in 1887. They have a commodious brick church on East Second street.

A Danish service is held each Sunday in the Congregational church on Institute street.

Since the above was written, the Pilgrim Memorial Church has been located on McKinley and Forest avenues. The Salvation Army has a handsome citadel on the corner of Spring and Third streets. The Calvary Baptist Church is located at the corner of Ashville and Livingston avenues. The Swedish Baptist Church is located on Chandler street. St. James' Church, Roman Catholic, is situated on Victoria avenue. Holy Trinity, English Lutheran, is located on Fourth street, between North Main and Cherry. Buffalo Street Methodist Episcopal Church, at Buffalo and Falconer streets. Grace United Brethren Church at North Main and Fourteenth streets.

The newspapers of the city are:
The Chautauqua Democrat (weekly). Published by the Jamestown Evening News Company.

The Evening Journal. Published daily except Sunday, at 12 West Second street by The Journal Printing Company, Frederick P. Hall, president and general manager; James A. Clary, vice-president and managing editor; Henri M. Hall, treasurer and business manager.

The Jamestown Journal. Twice-a-week, published at 12 West Second street, by The Journal Printing Company (for officers see above); established 1826.

The Morning Post. Published daily except Sunday at 311-313 Washington street, by The Post Publishing Company, Ralph C. Sheldon, president; Edward L. Allen, secretary and managing editor; Robert K. Beach, treasurer and business manager. Established in 1901.

The Evening News. Published daily except Sunday, by the Jamestown Evening News Company, Inc. 307 Spring.

The St. Clairsville Commercial. Published every Thursday by The Jamestown Evening News Company.

The Vart Land (Swedish). Published at 307 Spring street every Thursday by the Vart Land Company, F. G. Curtis, president; S. A. Carlson, secretary.

Skandia (Swedish). Published every Thursday by Liberty Printing Company, 14 West Second; C. E. Lindstone, editor.

The Union Advocate. Published every Thursday by The Jamestown Evening News Company, 307 Spring.

The Furniture Index. Devoted to furniture trade, and published once a month by the Furniture Trade Publishing Company.

The following are the philanthropic institutions of the city:
The Woman's Christian Association Hospital, corner Foote avenue and Allen street, one of the best in the country, and supported largely by voluntary contributions.

Gustavus Adolphus Orphans' Home, 1381 East Second street. This institution is controlled by the Lutheran Augustana Synod (Swedish).

During the year 1911 the O. E. Jones Memorial Hospital, erected on a tract of ground willed to the city by O. E. Jones, was opened to the public.

Jamestown has a number of handsome public buildings, viz.: Federal building, City Hall, James Prendergast Library and Art Gallery; State Armory.

The Young Men's Christian Association owns a building and plant valued at $100,000, and the Young Woman's Christian Association a handsome building, which with lot cost $65,000.

The Agnes Association owns a large brick residence and grounds which is conducted as a boarding home for working girls.

The Warner Home for the Aged, the latest of Jamestown's benevolent institutions, had its beginning in 1911 and received at the hands of Mrs. Mary H. Warner the L. B. Warner homestead in Forest avenue as a memorial to Mr. Warner, who died in 1905.

A comprehensive park system has been planned and a park commission composed of public-spirited citizens who have given and are giving much time gratuitously to the work of developing these parks into beauty spots that will be a credit to the city. One of the largest of these parks is the Allen Park located on the south side, a most picturesque and beautiful spot.

What is known as the "Hundred Acre Lot," a woodland lying on the borders of the city has been acquired, through public subscription, for the particular benefit of the pupils of the public schools.

There are two parks on the north side, one between West Fourth and West Fifth streets, known as Baker Park, and the other between West Sixth and West Seventh streets, known as Dow Park.

The Soldiers' Memorial Park, the purchase of which was authorized at a taxpayers' election in the spring of 1919, has been turned over to the local American Legion Post as a Memorial Home for Jamestown's soldiers. This park was formerly the Governor Fenton Homestead, is near the center of the city and with the mansion and grounds is a very fitting memorial to the soldier boys.

The Jones Memorial Park is on the shores of Chautauqua lake outlet. It is still in a rough state but in time will be made into a modern park.

The area of the city is approximately nine and one-half square miles, or 6,136 acres. There are more than 33 miles of paving, mostly shale brick, although some of the business streets are paved with bitulithic and asphalt block.

The assessed valuation of the city in 1908 was $13,347,981; in 1909, $13,498,331; in 1910, $14,133,149; in 1912, $16,046,366; in 1913, $16,981,395; in 1914, $16,455,020; in 1915, $17,713,396, and in 1918, $23,850,405.

On the settlement of the affairs of James Prendergast, son of Alexander T. and grandson of James Prendergast, the founder of Jamestown, whose funeral was held December 26, 1879, a brief memoranda was found which requested that the business block at the corner of Main and Third streets should be made available as an endowment for a free public library. On January 2, 1880, The James Prendergast Library Association was incorporated, and January 3, the association was duly organized and took title to the property. Mary (Norton) Prendergast, mother of James and wife of Alexander T. Prendergast, and the last survivor of the family, died in Rochester, December 22, 1889. By will she devised the by far greater part of her estate to public purposes. The various Prendergast bequests are as follows:

The James Prendergast Library (which has extended notice in chapter on Libraries) was completed at a cost of $60,000, and furnished with an art gallery costing $45,000. The grounds upon which the building is located cover an entire city square in one of the best residence districts of the city. It was opened to the puiDlic, December 1, 1891, and then contained 8,666 volumes, a number which has been constantly increased during the twenty-nine years the Library has been in existence,

A bronze drinking fountain erected near one of the main entrances to Lake View Cemetery at a cost of $2,000.

The magnificent St. Luke's Episcopal Church edifice, erected at a cost of $125,000.

The sum of $2,000 set aside and the income derived therefrom is divided annually into four prizes to be paid to students in the Jamestown schools for superior merit in scholarship, the same to be determined by competitive examinations.

The sum of $500 set aside and the income derived therefrom is expended in the purchase of books for the library of the Mission Sunday School conducted under the auspices of the Woman's Christian Association.

The rental of the Prendergast building at the corner of Main and Third streets provides an income sufficient to defray the operating expenses of the library. Thus it will be seen that the Prendergast family imposed no restrictions, for they not only built the library but they equipped it, and provided an endowment sufficleat to support it for all time to come-a truly royal gift.

The general welfare of the city of Jamestown is promoted by a Chamber of Commerce, a Manufacturers' Association and lesser business organizations. The fraternal orders are well represented, the Elks, Eagles, Odd Fellows and Masonic orders all being well housed in their own buildings. There are many literary, musical, art and social clubs.

The leading clubs are the -Jamestown Norden and Mozart, the list, however, being capable of great extension. There is a chapter of the Sons of the Revolution located in the city and a chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Other patriotic orders are: James Hall Camp, No. 11, Sons of Veterans; James M. Brown Post, No. 285, G. A. R.; Woman's Relief Corps, No. 73; Encampment No. 95, Union Veteran Legion; Auxiliary No. 24, Ladies of the Union Veteran Legion; Ira Lou Spring Post, American Legion.

There are lodges of the Scandinavian Fraternal Association of America, Swedish Brotherhood, Swedish Sisterhood, Sons of St. George, Daughters of St. George, and many others, social, athletic, religious and fraternal.

History of Jamestown, NY
FROM: History of Chautauqua County, New York and its people
John P. Downs - Editor-in-Charge.
Fenwick Y. Hedley Editor-in-Chief.
Published By American Historical Society, Inc. 1921

Jamestown, NY

The early settlement of the City of Jamestown, started on the north side of the Chadakoin River known as "The Rapids," was purchased from the Holland Land Company in 1809 by the Prendergast family. In 1810, John Blower built the first log house at "The Rapids," in which he operated a tavern for keelboatmen, who sold their goods between Pittsburgh and Mayville. The following year, James Prendergast built a long house saw mill and mill dam on the north bank of the river. By 1815, the year the settlement officially received its name, Jamestown consisted of a clearing of about sixty acres with only thirteen families in residence. Jamestown, at this time had a general store, a blacksmith shop, a sawmill, a gristmill and a wool carding business. Many of these businesses were located on the north side of the river, along Main Street between First and Fourth Streets.

The initial growth and development of the settlement was spurred on locally by the abundance of natural resources. The lumber furniture, and textile industries were established. The Chautauqua Lake Outlet supplied the waterpower for the mills and machinery, and the Allegheny River provided transportation for the distribution of manufactured goods to outside markets. The developing furniture industry would always play an important role in Jamestown history. Phineas Palmiter, emigrated from Rhode Island and established himself as Jamestown's first furniture maker. He was a carpenter, joiner, millwright, machinist, and metal worker, but James Prendergast first employed him in the erection of buildings for the expanding village. In 1827, Palmiter established a chair factory on East First Street. At this early stage, furniture was produced for local sale only, but by 1825 Royal Keyes was shipping furniture to southern markets. Between 1814 and 1823 the woolen industry began with a wool carding establishment, the first woolen mill and wool-weaving factory. In the fall of 1835, Joel Partridge, a local carpenter and joiner, bought a half interest in a pail and tub factory, which became known as the Wood and Partridge Company.

The early roads of Jamestown were primitive, but a wooden bridge, built in 1814, at the foot of Main Street connected the south side of the village. The poor road condition of the first half of the nineteenth century in the Chautauqua County region of the Holland Land Company made water travel a key mode of transportation for Jamestown. Locally manufactured items were shipped on boats for sale down the Chadakoin River and Conewango Creek to the Allegheny River and the Ohio River in flat and keelboats. Water transportation was most important until the advent of the railroads in 1860.

The railroad presence encouraged further expansion of industry by providing a reliable network for distribution of goods. Jamestown's first railroad was the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad, which arrived in 1860. This line was later operated by the Erie Railroad that offered both passenger and freight services between New York and Chicago and operated another branch from Jamestown to Buffalo. The railroad paralleled the Chadakoin River and helped to greatly expand the industrial corridor in the heart of the city. Jamestown's population increased dramatically after the introduction of the railroad, from 3,155 residents in 1860 to 15,000 residents in 1886, the year in which Jamestown achieved city status.

Ross, Claire, New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, Partridge/Sheldon House, nomination document, 2000, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places, Washington, D.C.

The Furniture Industry

The Development from 1816 to 1945

by Paul A. Spengler, Our Town Magazine, Jamestown Vol.1 Issue #7

The Economic Development of Jamestown Before 1860

The industrial development of Jamestown before the Civil War depended primarily on two resources, wood and water. In the early nineteenth century, Western New York was heavily forested, with as much as 100,000 board feet of timber per acre in upland areas like Chautauqua County. Southwestern New York was rich in white pine, hemlock and such valuable northern hardwoods as maple, oak, beech, birch, chestnut, walnut, sycamore and cherry. Southern Chautauqua County was covered with dense pine forests.

The county was also crossed by several creeks which provided water power for early nineteenth century factories. The creeks did not, however, provide a unified system of transportation. Chautauqua County is divided by a large terminal morraine known as "the ridge." The ridge is 600 to 1,400 feet in elevation and runs parallel to lake Erie, from three to six miles inland. West of the ridge, Cattaraugus Creek, Canadaway Creek and Walnut Creek flow into Lake Erie, while east of the ridge Lake Chautauqua, the Chadokoin River and Conewango Creek flow into the Allegheny River. Before the coming of the railroad, towns located west of the ridge, like Dunkirk, Fredonia and Westfield, were economically tied to the settlements of northern Ohio and Central New York, while Jamestown was tied to western Pennsylvania and the Ohio valley.

Overland transportation in the early nineteenth century was primitive and expensive. The high cost of transportation made it difficult for Chautauqua County farmers to import manufactured goods and prohibited the exporting of an agricultural surplus. Consequently, most farming in antebellum Chautauqua County was on a subsistence basis, while village industry consisted mainly of small artisan shops serving the needs of local farmers.

Timber was the only resource Chautauqua County possessed that could bear the transportation costs to urban markets. Soft pine woods were cut into boards, piled into rafts and floated down the Allegheny and Ohio Rivers to Pittsburgh and Cincinnati. The hardwoods were burned and their ashes used to make potash. Ten acres of hardwood land yielded up to a ton of potash, worth as much as $200. The potash was shipped to New York and Pittsburgh, where it was used as an ingredient in the manufacture of soap, glass, baking powder and gun powder.

Jamestown's location on the Chadokoin River, in the heart of the pine country, made it an early center of lumber milling. As early as 1804, Edward Work and Thomas R. Kennedy built a sawmill near Jamestown. In 1809, James Prendergast established the first settlement at "the rapids," as Jamestown was then known. He built a sawmill in 1810, and two more by 1816. Other settlers erected additional sawmills, and by 1830 Jamestown was shipping forty million board feet of timber per year, with an annual product value of $250,000. So many new mills were built during the 1830's that by 1840 most stands of first class pine timber had been exhausted.

Prendergast encouraged the settlement of skilled New England craftsmen in his village and many of them used their skills to launch manufacturing enterprises. New England artisans founded the village's first woolen mill and cabinet making shop. Other Yankees founded a scythe snath factory in Jamestown that quickly gained a nation-wide market, and a sash and pail factory that sold its goods as far away as New Orleans.

By the eve of the Civil War, Jamestown had developed a variety of industries. However, most of the village's business concerns were small establishments that provided for the needs of an agricultural area. Several factories manufactured farm implements such as grain measures, rakes and scythe snaths, while other entrepreneurs operated grist mills, sawmills, blacksmith shops, tanneries, wagon building shops and coopers' shops. Manufacturing not directly related to agriculture was limited largely to three woolen mills, two cabinet making shops and a chair factory.

Until shortly before the Civil War, Jamestown's industrial growth was severely hindered by lack of adequate transportation. In 1814, Jamestown was connected with the outside world only by keelboat. As late as 1880, some Jamestown merchants still traded on the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers from storeboats. Stage lines were opened between Jamestown, Warren, Mayville, Fredonia, Dunkirk, Erie and Buffalo during the 1820's. While stage coaches were adequate for passenger transportation, they were not sufficient for the movement of raw materials or manufactured goods. Plank roads, built in 1837, connected Jamestown with Fredonia and Dunkirk, but these were still not adequate to provide the transportation needed if Jamestown were to develop into an industrial city. Although the first railroad reached Chautauqua County in 1852, it went through the northern part of the county to Dunkirk, bypassing Jamestown. Until 1860, when the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad connected Jamestown to New York and Pittsburgh, Jamestown developed far more slowly than Dunkirk.

Jamestown's Furniture Industry Before 1860

The availability of wood and water not only made Jamestown a lumber milling center, but also made it possible for a furniture industry to develop. Jamestown was still basically a logging camp when in 1816, Royal Keyes started the first cabinet making shop in the village. Like many of Jamestown's early manufacturers, Keyes was an immigrant craftsman from New England. In 1820, Keyes formed a partnership with another Yankee immigrant, William Breed. In 1823 Breed bought out Keyes' interest and in 1837 he converted the business from a cabinet making shop based entirely on hand labor, to a water- powered factory. In 1827, Phineas Palmeter launched the village's first chair making factory which, like the Breed factory, later converted to water - powered machinery.

The water - powered machinery used in Jamestown's early furniture factories was very crude and most of the intricate work was still performed by hand. Nevertheless, by 1850 the Breed Company was selling furniture within a one - hundred mile radius of Jamestown, while the Rogers and Bill Chair Factory was shipping furniture in pieces to Pittsburgh. In 1858 Simmons, Tyrell and Company produced more than twenty types of chairs as well as bedsteads and other furniture. The company had large rooms for machinery, painting, finishing and storage. Most furniture factories built in Jamestown before the Civil War were located in the southeastern bend of the Chadokoin in order to make use of falling water. The area soon became known as Piousville, because so many of the factory owners were church deacons.

Economic Development of Jamestown after 1860

Several factors contributed to Jamestown's rapid growth after the Civil War. Of great importance was the development of railroads in southern Chautauqua County, beginning with the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad which reached Jamestown in 1860. Before 1860, railroad development in Chautauqua County had taken place only in the northern part of the county and benefited towns like Dunkirk, Fredonia and Westfield. Jamestown's only transportation before the Civil War was over rude plank roads, which were inadequate for shipping industrial goods. Lacking a railroad, Jamestown lagged behind Dunkirk. In 1855 Jamestown had only 1,625 people while Dunkirk had 4,754.

Jamestown's political and industrial leaders energetically worked for the construction of a railroad, and in 1860, they were able to interest the builder of the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad in building their railroad through Jamestown. This gave the village a rail link with New York City and Pittsburgh. It also made it possible for Jamestown to import coal, the indispensible ingredient of nineteenth century industry. By 1865, the village's population had doubled to 3,155. The building of additional railroads also boosted Jamestown's growth. The Buffalo and Oil Creek Cross Cut Railroad, built in 1865, connected Chautauqua County with the coal and oil fields of northwestern Pennsylvania, while in 1875 the Buffalo and Jamestown Railroad linked Jamestown to Buffalo. Many towns in Chautauqua County subsidized railroad construction and in 1888 Jamestown promoters spent $1,080,000 to build a railroad linking Jamestown with Mayville and Westfield, which were on the routes of the New York Central, Pennsylvania and Southern Michigan railroads. By 1880, Jamestown had surpassed Dunkirk when its population reached 9,357 and by 1920, Jamestown's population was 38,917.

The establishment of rail links made it possible for Jamestown to import raw materials more cheaply and export finished goods more profitably. Also, by the end of the Civil War, businessmen in Jamestown had accumulated enough capital from lumber milling to invest in new and expanded industries. In order to attract new industries, the city sometimes subsidized plant construction. In 1872, for example, $5,000 was raised by subscription to get the Union Boulder Pail Factory to locate in Jamestown, and in 1874 William Broadhead got a $15,000 subsidy to help build his first worsted mill.

Throughout the late nineteenth century, as agriculture became more mechanized, people moved to the cities, expanding the industrial work force and creating a larger urban consumer market. Companies which had produced agricultural equipment began making goods for urban buyers. The F. Simmons Company and the H. W. Watson Company of Jamestown, for example, had originally made farm tools, but later produced furniture instead. The arrival of foreign-born immigrants also swelled the urban work force. In Jamestown, the arrival of Swedish immigrants after 1865 provided additional skilled workers for the furniture factories, while English immigrants made a major contribution to the city's worsted industry.

Jamestown never became a center of heavy industry. It was too far from the main lines of transportation, and its industrial growth began too late for it to compete with cities like Pittsburgh and Buffalo. Jamestown survived, however, and continued to grow by concentrating on smaller industries that did not require great capital investment or highly expensive technology. Throughout the late nineteenth century, Jamestown specialized in the manufacture of worsted cloth and wooden furniture, and by 1911 it was second only to Grand Rapids as a furniture manufacturing center. The city's entrepreneurs were also quick to branch out into new lines of light industrial production. In 1889, a group of Jamestown businessmen organized the American Aristotype Company, a pioneer in the manufacture of photographic paper, and in 1888 another group of Jamestown businessmen took the leadership in organizing the Art Metal Construction Company. Other metal furniture companies were soon organized in Jamestown and by 1911, the city was the leading manufacturer of metal furniture in the nation. Jamestown entrepreneurs also organized companies to manufacture a wide variety of goods, including metallic doors, voting machines, pianos, crescent wrenches, ball bearings and automobile parts.

The Furniture Industry in Jamestown, 1860 to 1920

In 1855, Jamestown had one chair factory and two cabinet making shops. By 1920, the city had twenty furniture factories, and by 1930, there were fifty. The post Civil War years brought economic prosperity to the North, while the railroads enabled Jamestown manufacturers to expand their markets. As the forests of southern Chautauqua County became depleted, furniture manufacturers were able to import wood. Immediately after the war, furniture production expanded. In 1870, the Jamestown Cane Seat Company spent $17,000 modernizing its plant while the F. Simmons Company converted from making farm tools to making furniture. New enterprises were started, including the Martyn Brothers Lounge Company (1865), Park Brothers (1865), Wood and Comstock (1869), the Jamestown Wood Seat Chair Company (1873), and the Jamestown Bedstead Works (1873). The formation of new companies was hindered for a time by the depression of 1873 to 1877, however, during the later nineteenth century additional companies were launched, including Shearman Brothers (1880), the Morgan Manufacturing Company (1890), and the Jamestown Furniture Company (1893). The first Swedish manufacturer of furniture in Jamestown, Augustus Johnson, began making doors in 1869 and beginning in the 1870's, the Swedes organized a great number of furniture companies, including the A. C. Norquist Company (1881), at Atlas Furniture Company (1882), Carlson, Bloomquist and Snow (1885) as well as a great number of firms launched early in the twentieth century, such as the Elk, Anchor, Allied, Acme, Active and Level Furniture Companies.

Furniture factories were a cheap investment primarily because they were not highly mechanized and did not require large numbers of workers. Jamestown furniture was made entirely by hand until 1837, when the first crude, water - driven equipment came into use.

William Maddox, founder of the Maddox Table Company, invented a variety of furniture making machines, which he sold to manufacturers throughout the United States. He owed much of his success, as a table manufacturer, to his invention of a machine for polishing wooden table tops. As late as 1900, however, the principal machines in the furniture factories were slash saws, band saws, planers, moulders and shapers, and many operations continued to be done by hand. Electric, motors were not introduced until shortly after World War I.

Most furniture factories employed a relatively small work force. In 1894, even well-established firms like the Breed-Johnson Company, the Jamestown Cane Seat Company, the Morgan Manufacturing Company and the Shearman Brothers Lounge Company only employed from 50 to 100 workmen. Smaller concerns often employed only one or two dozen men. As late as 1920, firms such as Elk, Acme, Active and Allied furniture companies employed 50 men or less. Large companies in 1920 included the A. C. Norquist Company, with 125 men, the Atlas Furniture Company, with 200 men, and Level Furniture Company and the Bailey Table Company, with close to 300 men each.

During the late nineteenth century, some of the larger furniture factories employed women and children on a piece-work basis. In 1870, the Jamestown Cane Seat Company employed from 30 to 40 girls and boys, paying them $.10 per seat. The children usually worked at home, and made from 6 to 10 cane seats per day. For more intricate work, however, companies relied on skilled adult woodworkers. Before the Civil War most of the woodworking was performed by Yankees, while after the war the Swedes began to play a major role in the city's furniture industry. Early in the twentieth century, Italians and Albanians also found work in Jamestown's furniture factories. The small scale of enterprise, and the continued reliance on hand labor, rather than inexpensive [expensive] equipment, made it possible for furniture workers to organize their own companies. This was especially true in the case of the Swedes. Several firms, including the A.C. Norquist, Atlas, Advance and Level furniture companies were founded by immigrant Swedish woodworkers.

The growth of the city's furniture industry depended also on entrepreneurs who sought new ways of promoting their products and expanding their markets. Before the Civil War, Jamestown furniture makers sold their goods largely in the local area. Even during the first two decades after the war, the market for the furniture was largely regional. From 1877 to 1886, for example, Jamestown Split Cane Seat Company sold its goods almost entirely in New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. As transportation improved in the large nineteenth century, Jamestown businessmen were able to ship their goods profitably to more distant markets. At the same time, they were exposed to competition from other cities.

One of the ways in which furniture manufacturers in Jamestown increased their sales was by improved advertising and marketing arrangements. Until the end of the nineteenth century, dealers who wished to purchase Jamestown furniture made their selections from photographs carried by traveling salesmen. They rarely saw samples of the furniture they intended to order. One of the first manufacturers in Jamestown to experiment with new advertising techniques was William Maddox. He was one of the first furniture manufacturers in the United States to trademark his products, and in 1889, he sent a showman named Cedarine Allen on a world-wide promotional tour. In four months, Allen took Maddox tables to Great Britain, Spain, Egypt, Arabia, Ceylon, Malaya, China and Japan. The Ahlstrom Piano Company employed another advertising device when it appealed to ethnic pride by placing advertisements in Swedish-language newspapers urging their readers to buy their pianos from a Swedish-American company.

Jamestown's furniture manufacturers took a big step towards improved advertising in 1895 when they held their first furniture exposition in the Celeron auditorium. No further expositions were held, however, until 1910. Between 1910 and 1917, furniture manufacturers began to exhibit their wares regularly in their factories and in hotels. They timed their exhibits to coincide with the annual furniture exhibitions in Grand Rapids, and furniture buyers began visiting Jamestown on their way to Grand Rapids. In 1914, several of the city's furniture manufacturers organized the Jamestown Furniture Marketing Association. The leaders in this venture included a number of owners of important companies. In 1917, they built the Furniture Exposition Building, where manufacturers from the Jamestown area held regular showings of their new lines of furniture. By 1945 the association included thirty companies in Jamestown, Falconer, Frewsburg, Mayville, Brocton, Salamanca, Warren and Youngsville. The association mailed advertisements to over 10,000 furniture dealers and department stores, and advertised in a wide variety of trade journals as well as publications like Home and Garden, House Beautiful and The New Yorker.

The furniture industry in Jamestown also grew because entrepreneurs and investors took the initiative in launching new kinds of furniture concerns. In 1888 Arthur C. Wade, an attorney, and Alexis Crane, a druggist, took the leadership in organizing the Art Metal Construction Company. They were joined by Rueben E. Fenton, Jr., the governor's son, and by Frank E. Gifford, a leading manufacturer of wooden furniture. They bought out the nation's first producer of metal shelving, the American Shelf and Drawer Company of Milwaukee, and joined with firms in Saint Louis, Rochester and Milwaukee to found the Art Metal Construction Company, the first producer of metal furniture in the United States. Because of the leadership taken by Jamestown businessmen, Jamestown became the site of the company's general office. The Watson Manufacturing Company soon converted its operations from farm equipment to metal furniture and in 1904 a group of Swedes organized the Dahlstrom Metallic Door Company. By 1920, there were six companies in Jamestown which produced metal furniture, doors and shelving.

Successful furniture manufacturers also helped promote the city's development by supporting other business ventures. William Maddox, after succeeding as a table manufacturer, started a company to produce furniture making machinery. Arthur Wade and Frank Gifford, two of the leading founders of the Art Metal Construction Company, later took much of the initiative in organizing the American Voting Machine Company.

The Jamestown Furniture Industry, 1920 to 1945

By 1930, 50 of the city's 110 factories produced furniture and two of them, Art Metal and Marlin Rockwell, were listed on the New York Stock Exchange.

In 1945 furniture was still Jamestown's biggest industry, but the number of furniture companys had declined to 25. A number of factors help account for the failure of so many companies. First, it was becoming more expensive to get raw materials. The great pine forest of Chautauqua County had disappeared by 1850, most of the valuable hardwoods had been used by 1875 and even the cheaper woods like hemlock, were nearly exhausted by 1900. The manufacturers were able to import wood, pigments, oils and resins by rail, however, these were often expensive items produced in foreign countries. By the end of World War II, Jamestown's furniture companies still obtained much of their popular, chestnut, maple, cherry and some of the oak timber locally. Other woods and materials had to be imported from abroad: mahogany from Africa, ivarra from the Philippines and primaverra from Mexico, sienna pigment from Italy, umber from Turkey and Van Dyke Brown from Germany, tung oil from China and Central America, and most of the resin came from South America and New Zealand. It was especially difficult for small firms to pay for these imported raw materials. Trade was interrupted during World War II which made these items even more scarce.

Conflicts between labor and management also become serious after World War I. Prior to this time, workers in Jamestown were seldom unionized, except for a few years during the mid-1880's, when the Knights of Labor organized a few craft unions. The Knights had few supporters among unskilled or immigrant laborers, and they quickly collapsed because of conflicts within the labor movement. Unions affiliated with the American Federation of Labor began to organize in Jamestown in 1896 and by 1900 there were twenty-nine A. F. L. unions in the city. Like the Knights, the A. F. L. represented primarily skilled labor, but unlike the Knights they had considerable support among the foreign-born. Labor solidarity, however, was hindered by ethnic conflicts. On several occasions, businessmen made concessions on hours and wages, as long as they did not have to grant the unions legal recognition, and there was little violence until shortly before World War I.

Violent strikes became more common shortly before the war, and wartime inflation contributed to increased union militancy and to the reluctance of employers to raise wages. Consequently, in 1919, a mass strike closed 56 factories and involved 3,600 workers. Disagreement between moderate and radical labor leaders contributed to the failure of the strike, as did widespread public reaction against radicalism. Relations between labor and management remained very bitter for years afterwards. There were major strikes at Empire Case Goods and the Art Metal Construction Company in 1933, at the Dahlstrom Metallic Door Company in 1940, at the Blackstone Company in 1949, and at the Art Metal Construction Company, the Watson Manufacturing Company and the Jamestown Metal Corporation in 1955. Union leaders argued that wages in Jamestown were below the national average, while employers argued that the burden of rising wages and taxes force companies to leave the city or go out of business.

The most important reason for the failure of so many furniture companies, however, was the lack of capital to modernize. Before 1920, many factories had been founded with small amounts of capital and they were able to survive because manufacturing did not require highly expensive, complex machinery. Furthermore, until the end of the nineteenth century, many furniture companies in Jamestown traded primarily in a regional market. As Jamestown became more integrated into the national economy, and as furniture became more mechanized, it was increasingly difficult for small, marginal firms to compete successfully with larger and more efficient rivals.

Even before the Great Depression of the 1930's, economic downturns had caused furniture factories to fail. The depression of 1873 - 1877 witnessed the failure of Gates and Langford and Ford, Wood and Comstock. Business failures during the depression of the mid-1890's included Benson, Hand, and Frisbee and Schildmacher and Bauer. A number of firms went out of business, or were bought out by larger companies, even during the prosperous decade of the 1920's. The Kling-Triangle Furniture Company failed in 1925 and the Ahlstrom Piano Company and the Jamestown Case Goods went out in 1926. The year 1927 witnessed the failure of the Liberty Upholstery Company and the Herrick, Supreme and Standard furniture companies. In 1928, the Bailey Table Company, Himebaugh Brothers, Schulze and Van Stee and the Jamestown Period Furniture Company went out of business. The Ideal, Allied, Level and Star furniture companies failed in 1929. The number of companies that went out of business during the two or three years preceding the depression indicates that many firms, especially the smaller ones, were finding it difficult to compete successfully in a post-war economy characterized by larger firms and greater mechanization.

The depression itself wiped out many furniture companies, especially among the smaller Swedish firms founded with little capital during the early twentieth century. During the worst years of the depression, from 1930 to 1935, several other companies ceased operations: Jamestown Mantel Company, the Modern Cabinet Company and the Active, Excelsior, Elk, Premier and Diamond furniture companies. The recovery of the mid 1930's was followed by the recession of 1936 - 1939 during which Berkey Chair Company, and the Munson, Marvel and Dykeman furniture companies failed. Thomas, Superior and Anchor furniture companies, along with the American Carving Works and the Lake View Carving Company discontinued business in the early 1940's.

This period of the 30's and 40's were not years of total failure, however. A few successful new furniture companies were founded, including the Aluminum Chair Company (1937), Burns Furniture Company (1939), the Falconer Cabinet Corporation(1946) and the Chadokoin Furniture Company (1946). Although the Wright Metal Corporation failed in 1934, its place was taken by the successful Jamestown Steel Partition Company, organized in 1940.

Many companies merged or were bought by stronger firms. As early as 1919, the Maddox family sold its table making business to the Shearman Brothers Lounge Company. The Jamestown Metal Desk Company underwent reorganization in 1935, emerging as the Jamestown Metal Corporation. In 1940 it took over the Ellison Bronze Company then in 1950 it absorbed the Exel Metal Company. By 1945, there had been extensive mergers in the furniture industry in Jamestown; Burns Case Goods took over the Premier Cabinet Corporation, Empire Case Goods absorbed the Cadwell Cabinet Company, and Kling Factories bought out the Triangle Furniture Company and Carlson, Bloomquist and Snow. Davis Furniture Company absorbed the F. M. Curtis Company and then merged with the Randolph Furniture Works, which had previously taken over the Eckman and Himebaugh furniture companies. Of twenty-five furniture companies still in business in 1945, the four strongest were products of mergers: Union-National, Shearman-Maddox, Jamestown Royal and Davis-Randolph.

In the decade that followed World War II, a number of companies in Jamestown were bought by firms which had their headquarters in other cities. The Chautauqua Plywood Company became part of Magnavox, the Curtis Machine Corporation was purchased by the Carborundum Company, Conroe Concrete became part of Marietta Concrete and Weber-Knapp was absorbed by a furniture company in Grand Rapids. Other companies, like the Daystrom Company, the Newbrook Machine Corporation and Empire Case Goods, left the city. Some, like the Swanson Machine Company and Croft Steel Products, moved to the deep South, where wage and tax costs were lower. In the early 1950's, one Jamestown businessman noted that, during his years in the city, at least sixty-nine companies had left or gone out of business, while only seven successful new ventures had been launched. In 1945, however, none of Jamestown's major furniture companies had left the city, and furniture making was still Jamestown's largest industry.

The Furniture Industry and the Swedes

In addition to becoming Jamestown's leading industry, furniture making also provided jobs and economic advancement for many of the city's immigrants. While many of the foreign-born were unskilled laborers, other contributed important skills to the city's industries. British weavers were very significant in the growth of the worsted mills in Jamestown, and the Art Metal Construction Company imported skilled German metal workers from Milwaukee. The wooden furniture factories employed some Italian woodcarvers and many Albanian painters and lacquerers. Italians organized the Paterniti Table Company, and the Maddox Table Company was founded by the son of an English immigrant. The most important immigrant group in the furniture industry, however, was the Swedes.

In 1865, there were 205 Swedes living in the town of Ellicott, which included Jamestown. By 1920 there were 15,025 people of Swedish birth or parentage in Jamestown, making the Swedes the city's largest ethnic group. The peak years of Swedish immigration occurred between 1865 and 1900, and coincided with the rise of the city's furniture industry. A large proportion of the Swedes who came to Jamestown were skilled shoemakers, tailors, blacksmiths and woodworkers, and even at the peak of Swedish immigration in 1880, Swedes in skilled occupations outnumbered those doing unskilled work. A great many of the Swedes were skilled in making wood products and they quickly found jobs in Jamestown's furniture factories, where many operations were still performed by hand. By 1900, the Swedes generally made up a majority of the work force in furniture factories owned by native Americans, and in companies owned by the Swedes, almost all the workers were Swedish.

There were two main reasons for this change in Swedish occupational patterns. First, there was a change in the origins of Swedish immigrants. In 1880 most Swedish immigrants were peasants or rural craftsmen. By 1920, Swedish immigration included a larger proportion of factory workers with industrial skills. Second, among Swedes already settled in Jamestown there was growing occupational diversity. Wooden furniture making had given the Swedes a firm footing in skilled occupations and during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Swedes were able to branch out into other skills.

The first Swedish immigrant manufacturers in Jamestown also began by producing wooden furniture. Shortly after the Civil War, Swedes in Jamestown began going into business as grocers, tailors, cobblers and restaurant and saloon keepers. The first Swedish manufacturing concern in the city was a door factory, founded in 1869 by Augustus Johnson. During the 1870's there was a rapid growth in the number of Swedish enterprises. Augustus Johnson became a partner in Jamestown's oldest furniture company in 1870, when the Breed Furniture Company became the Breed-Johnson Furniture Company. In 1870 Olaf and August Linblad and P. J. Berquist began making custom-made furniture. C. A. Ahlstrom founded his piano factory in 1875 and in 1881 the Norquist brothers launched their first furniture business.

During the half century between the Civil War and World War I, Swedes in Jamestown founded at least seventy-five furniture companies. Most of them were small, and many of them were short-lived, but at least half of the forty furniture factories in Jamestown in 1920 belonged to the Swedes. Many of these companies were founded by Swedish craftsmen who saved money out of their wages, pooled their limited capital and took out bank loans in order to go into business. Some of Jamestown's most successful Swedish manufacturers, including Charles A. Ahlstrom, Augustus Johnson and Evald B. Seaburg, had been woodworkers in furniture factories before going into business for themselves.

Swedes went into the furniture industry, not only because many of them were skilled woodworkers, but because, like native Americans, they found that it was relatively inexpensive to start a furniture factory. The A. C. Norquist Company was founded in 1881, when August and Charles Norquist, with $175 capital, began making furniture in the loft of their father's barn. As business grew, they built a factory and by 1920 the A. C. Norquist Furniture Company employed 125 men, while another member of the family, Frank O. Norquist, had started two more furniture companies. The Level Furniture Company was founded by Swedish immigrants in 1905. At first the company employed only twenty-five men and made a cheap grade of bedroom and parlor furniture. By 1920, however, the company employed 275 men and produced better grades of furniture. The Atlas Furniture Company was founded in 1883 by Swedish immigrant workers with $1,400 capital. The Dahlstrom Metallic Door Company was funded by Charles P. Dahlstrom, an immigrant mechanical engineer, with the financial support of Swedish businessmen in Jamestown. He built his first factory on one floor of an old factory building in 1904. By 1920, the company comprised ten buildings and employed 500 men.

By 1920, the Swedes formed a considerable proportion of Jamestown's business and professional elite. Of 425 prominent citizens the city listed in John P. Down's History of Chautauqua County, one-third were of Swedish birth or parentage. The Swedes made up 40 percent of 193 business leaders born after 1850 and nearly half of these Swedish business leaders were furniture makers.

The furniture industry, therefore, not only provided jobs for Swedish workers, but also provided upward social and economic mobility for those who went into business. This industry became the means by which Swedes entered the city's business elite. The Swedish manufacturers later diversified and founded such companies as Dahlstrom Metallic Door Company, Crescent Tool Company and Jamestown Metal Equipment Company which produced, respectively, metallic doors, crescent wrenches, and automobile heaters and radiators. In 1910, Swedish businessmen organized the Swedish-American National Bank of Jamestown of which several stockholders and directors were furniture manufacturers.

The Swedish people, through their contributions to the furniture industry, both as workers and entrepreneurs, helped make Jamestown a major center of the furniture industry. The role of the Swedes in Jamestown was not unique. They also helped make Rockford Illinois a major furniture manufacturing center and they contributed greatly to the growth of the emory grinding industry in Worcester, Massachusetts.